Porshasolis, welcome to Scam Survivors. Sorry to hear you were scammed.
As Wayne said, "provisionally".... the fact is by US Law banks must make funds available to you in a certain amount of time, depending on what State you are in. Fact #2 is that the amount of time is far from what it can actually take to clear the check completely and get the money in your account, 100%.
The initial paperwork you signed when you got the bank account has wording in it that says ( in short) -- if a problem happens, it is your fault, not ours. And we will charge you for it. that is why they back charged your account.
It is also possible you could face criminal charges ( depending on the State you live in), even though you are a victim. Now that is a real Bite in the skin, isn't it?? However, it is true.
Please see this for more information. http://www.fakechecks.org/preventionOverpayments.html
There is also a link to "REPORT IT" on the page, should you wish to do so. It is not a police agency, just a site similar to this one.
If you haven't done so already, it may be a good idea to report it to your local police. That way there is a record showing you as the victim.
You should also report it to the US Postal Inspector, since it came in the US mail. Find your local one here : https://ribbs.usps.gov/locators/find-is.cfm